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In 4 turns of the game, players remake the history of Europe since 1945, and project it into the future as far as 2030. What will the face of Europe be then? It's up to the players to decide.
The game of EUROPA is not fought with tanks or soldiers. It's a battle of ideas: Each player represents a European political party who is trying, with each election, to advance its own European ideal. Events such as the fall of the Berlin Wall and the disintegration of the Soviet Empire cause the risks of war to increase and even threaten the creation of a unified Europe.
In order to defeat the different nationalist parties, players must learn to cooperate and compromise. To advance their ideals without losing sight of the common objective--the European Union--that is the goal for the players of EUROPA.
EUROPA mixes politics, diplomacy, history, and geography, to offer players rapid and intense play with amazing realism. This game will help players learn more about Europe so that they may better understand what's really at stake.
Yesterday: 1945, Europe lies in ruins. After 1500 years of internal conflicts, the Second World War again plunged the nations of Europe into barbarism and horror. Is Europe doomed to be plagued by eternal conflict?
Today: 50 years later, despite the many obstacles in its path, the Union has become reality. Rejecting the specter of hatred and the folly of war, 15 countries have already made the choice to build their future together, while others are preparing to join.
Tomorrow: Can Europe serve as an example for the whole world? Yes, if the Europeans are capable of putting an end to all of the conflicts in Europe itself. The Union has the means to put all of the xenophobes in their place.
All that Europe still lacks is a uniform political will, expressed loudly and clearly. In its own fashion, this game seels to capture that collective conscience.
Eurogames Descartes USA
Players: 3 - 6
Time: 120 minutes
Ages: 12 and up
Weight: 2,550 grams
Language Requirements: This is an international edition or domestic edition of an imported item. Game components are printed in English. Manufacturer's rules are printed in English.
Average Rating: 3.2 in 8 reviews
Again, if you like the Pablum for the Masses type of games where it's not right to play tough at the game table, then you won't like Europa. However, if you like DIPLOMACY, and have problems finding 7 players who can commit an entire day to negotiate, then this is a great alternative. The game works with 4-6 and plays in 2-3 hours. My main piece of advise is to be somewhat strict about the rules regarding discussions during the elections so that the game doesn't drag out too long.
Another strength that this has over Diplomacy is that it is much simpler. It takes an average gamer 2-3 games to get used to the mechanics of writing attack, support and convoy orders. It also has a BORDERLANDS aspect to it in as much that even though all of the pieces are in plan sight, you might be quite surprised by how a round is played out. This means that players need to be engaged with one another.
Keep in mind that this reviewer enjoys games where you are playing against the other players moreso than the game system itself.
The old adage is that You cant judge a book by its cover. These may be words of wisdom, but lets face it most people DO judge books, games, movies, etc. by their cover at least initially. Perhaps thats why I havent heard that much about Europa 1945-2030 (Eurogames, 1998 Duccio Vitale and Leo Colovini). The cover has almost nothing to do with the game (a huge baby crawling through a background of blue.), and doesnt really inspire interest. However, when opening the box one finds some of the most fantastic components ever to be put in a board game. Yet again, when I went to www.boardgamegeek.com, I discovered that the average rating was close to 5, which is an abysmal number for that site. Yet, inspired by one positive review, I decided to try it out and Im glad I did.
After playing it, I understand why many dislike the game. Because of the mechanics, its very simple for a game experience to be ruined if some players play a specific way. And yet, I really enjoyed the game. Sure, I was enamored by the components, but more than that the negotiations were really enjoyable and a tad less cutthroat that those of the classic game Diplomacy. The theme went over like a bomb in our group but the puzzle pieces overcame that. The game looks good, plays well, and truly is educational if you wish.
The theme of the game starts after World War II, and involves players trying to convince countries to join the European Union (EU). A large game board is set up in the middle of the table, denoting a current map of Europe. Several overlays are placed on the board, covering up many countries (notably the small countries that were formerly the U.S.S.R.). leaving fifteen countries showing: Great Britain, Ireland, Iceland, France, Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Germany, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Finland. Each player places one meeple (pawn) on a political track starting number of political points is determined by number of players (from 20-40). Each player also receives a certain number of meeples (2-4), depending on number of players. Turn One (of Four) is ready to begin.
Each turn is composed of five phases.
- The first phase determines turn order. On the first turn, this is done randomly, but after that, the player whose meeple is highest on the political track goes first, with the next highest going second, etc.
- During the second phase, players determine who receives more meeples. The number of meeples they receive is equal to 1/10 of a players political points (rounded down).
- Phase three determines the election order. The corresponding card for each country is shuffled, and then placed face-up on a card track on the board. This shows the order in which voting will occur in each country. A numbered counter that corresponds with a cards position is placed in the matching country.
- In turn order, during Phase four, the player places half of their meeples on one or more of the available countries that turn. They can place them on any open country in the first turn, but after that, are limited to countries that are connected to countries already in the EU. After all players have placed, they again place the other half of their meeples in one or more countries, in turn order.
- The heart of the game is the fifth phase elections. Each country has an election to see if it will join the EU. The elections follow the order that was chosen in phase three. If a country has no pawns in it, the evil nationalists (how DARE a country not want to join the EU!) win, and nothing happens. If there are meeples in a country, however, it is possible for that country to join the EU. Each country has a number in a black circle from 1 to 6. This is the minimum amount of meeples who must be in that country. That does not ensure that the country will join the EU, however. Each country is worth a certain amount of points, from 2 to 48. The player(s) who want those points must form a coalition that meets the following requirements. 1: A maximum of three players may be in the coalition (one is allowed). 2: The coalition must have a majority of the meeples in the country. 3: The coalition must meet or exceed the number in the black circle. If a coalition succeeds, the country joins the EU (hooray peace on earth!), and a blue puzzle piece that is the same shape as that country is placed over it, signifying that it has joined the EU. The corresponding card for that country is removed from the game, and every player in the winning coalition gets one victory point chip. Also, each player splits the points the country is worth and moves their meeples on the political track according to the points they received. Finally, the winning players may move ONE of their meeples from this country to any other country that has not yet had an election. All other meeples are returned to the box.
- In the third and fourth turn, there is an extra phase, called Risk of War. This phase occurs before phase four on those turns. Two ten-sided dice are rolled six times. There is a chart on the side of the board that the dice are compared to. Each country whose number on this chart is rolled gets a Tension marker. If the country already has a tension marker, a War marker is placed in the country. If the country already has a War token, all countries next to that one get a tension marker, which could produce a chain reaction The General Level of Conflict is then calculated, with each tension country adding one point, and each war country adding double the value of their black, circled numbers. Once a total has been reached, players must try to stop the tension and war. All players secretly bid an amount of their meeples. If the total number of pawns is equal to or greater than the conflict total, then the player who bid the most meeples gets four victory points, the second most gets two victory points, and the third most receives one victory point. All tension and war markers are removed from the board, and people in all the countries hold hands and sing merrily. However, if the total meeples is less than the conflict total, the player who kept the largest number of meeples back (did not bid them) LOSES four victory points, the second most two victory points, etc. Then the player who did bid the most meeples uses the meeples that were bid to remove at least some of the tension and war chips. In elections, the black, circled number is increased by one, and countries that are at war cannot even have an election.
At the beginning of turn two, some puzzle pieces are removed from the board, adding new countries - Spain, Turkey, etc. - to the game (their cards are shuffled into the deck for the next round.) At the beginning of turn three, the USSR breaks up, and a LOT of countries are added to the game. After turn four, the game is essentially over. The player with the most political points is elected president of the EU, and gets 3 victory points. The player with the most victory points is the winner! (Although the rules compare your victory with how many war and tension markers are still on the table!)
Some comments on the game
1.) Components: Except for Days of Wonder, nothing much can beat the quality of a big-boxed Eurogame. Everything in the box (aside from the box art) is fantastic, and if you are a meeple fan, as I am this game comes with 120 of them! And there are meeple men and women how cute! (Ahem.) The map is huge, and looks really striking on the table. All the numbers are easily read (except a few of the black ones). The cards are a nice size, are easy to shuffle, and have some good information about each country on them (for educational purposes). The number one striking thing about the components, however, is the puzzle pieces. Each of the many, many puzzle pieces fits snugly over the exact country on the board. Finding the right piece, and laying them down is really a lot of fun and its really kind of fascinating to watch how an ocean of colors slowly but surely turns to blue symbolizing the growth of the EU. A great plastic insert holds all the pieces well including the little victory point tokens. Tons of components are present in this game. Even if you dont like the game, but are an aspiring game designer theres a lot of stuff here for you to play with.
2.) Rules: I was a little confused on the rules at first, and had to read them through twice to fully understand them. Once I got the hang of it, the game is fairly easy, although there is occasionally a snag up with elections. A sheet of errata including some rather important rules that were missed in the rulebook is included in the game. I found that the game is fairly easy to teach, but that most people take a bit to get the game.
3.) Theme: I dont want to start a debate on how good the EU is/isnt, but its quite evident that the designers think that its Gods Gift To Mankind. People who are heavy nationalists may despise the theme, as some of my history-buff friends do, but most people enjoy the game anyway. One history major I played the game with snarled about how evil the EU was, but won the game anyway helping expand the EU across Europe. I rather enjoy playing games that make people have fun, even though their ideology may be hurt. J One part of the theme that I really enjoyed was seeing the USSR break up, and turn into many different countries countries that very easily would break into war.
4.) Problem: There is one glaring problem with the game. If two (or more) people team up at the beginning of the game, not caring which of them wins, they are pretty much unstoppable. Everyone HAS to play for themselves, and only themselves. Alliances must be temporary, and I dont think I will be playing the game with any we love each other and cannot harm each other couples again. However, when I play the game, I state this at the beginning, and it isnt too much of a problem. The game still offers an excellent opportunity for king making, but so does every other diplomatic game.
5.) Diplomacy: I hate Diplomacy, and the destruction of relationships and friendships it causes (and the people who have every opening move memorized). However, I do like the diplomacy in this game its short, its open, and its rather fun. The countries are all numbered differently (although it seems that the designers may be biased into making some countries worth more than they actually are). Should I barter with Joe to take this country, and leave Mary Ann out in the cold? Or should I hook up with Mary Ann and Sue, leaving Joe with empty pockets? Or maybe theyll hook up and hang me out to dry! Negotiations are short, sweet (well, sometimes), and the game moves at a good pace.
6.) Fun Factor: Despite the fairly negative reviews Ive read on this game, I actually think its pretty fun. The pieces are great for sure, but the changing map, the naming of each country in their own language, and the stabbing of people in the stomach (they can see it coming) is frankly a lot of fun. The only people who wont have fun are those lovey-dovey couples who may just go home arguing all night.
Ill gladly play this game anytime, as long as I can get a group of like-minded people. Its fairly quick, fits up to six players (dont play with less than 4!), and looks absolutely stunning when set up on the table. I hear that this game is going out of print this year, so if you want to pick up this unfairly maligned gem, do it now! If you like European modern history, geography, diplomacy, and just fun then this is the game for you! If you like everyone, and never wish to harm anyone else well, then go play Lord of the Rings. I do think that most people, even non-gamers, will like this one and its a worthy addition to any game collection.
This game is one of the more underappreciated games on the market. Firstly, the bits are OUTSTANDING! The board is a giant map, with puzzle-pieces which overlay to represent all of the nations which have joined the European Union. The game has a cooperative goal, but a cutthroat feel, which is new to me. It requires all of the players to work together to form coalitions, and to make deals, while at the same time, all secretly trying to amass the most victory points for themselves. The player with the most political power at any one time, may not be the player who is winning, so it is always important to maintain balance, and to keep an eye on your opponents. If you like Diplomacy, and other games requiring a high level of negotiation, try Europa 1945-2030--you won't be disappointed. The gameplay is excellent, the board is phenomenal, and the pieces are actually made out of wood and not cheap plastic. The only trouble you will have with this game is convincing all of your wargaming buddies that a game with a baby on the cover is worth playing.
Although I am not a big fan of diplomatic games, Europa combines all of the good points of Risk and Diplomacy to create a worthy addition to your game collection. The components are excellent, and the few holes in the rules can be ironed out easily.
With the right group of cooperative (or back stabbing) people, this game shines.
1945: Europe lies in ruins. After 1500 years of internal conflicts, the Second World War again plunged the nations of Europe into barbarism and horror. Is Europe doomed to be plagued by eternal conflict?
Not if the European Union can help it! This release from Duccio Vitale and Leo Colovini, published by EuroGames, is a game of elections, negotiation and cooperation, all in attempts to build a better Europe.
For those unfamiliar with the game, its premise is the development of the European Union from the period following World War II into the future (2030). Players represent different political parties and are trying to bring as many countries into the family of the EU as possible. Elections are held in various countries each round and there must be sufficient votes to defeat the nationalists in that country. Most of the time, this requires players forming coalitions in order to secure a victory. Trouble is, no more than three players can be in any coalition, so usually one or more players are going to be left out. This is where the negotiation and deal-making aspects of the game really get heated.
What is at stake are both Political points and Victory points. Each country has a set number of Political points which are divided equally between the players participating in the winning coalition. Plus, each of these players receives one Victory point regardless of the actual Political point value of the country in question. Victory points ultimately determine the game's victor, but Political points determine how many pawns a player has available for each round's elections, as well as the order in which coalitions will be proposed. Further, at game's end, the player with the most Political points is elected President of the EU and receives a bonus 3 Victory points.
What makes the election process even more interesting is that following a successful election in a country, resulting in that country being admitted into the EU, all players who participated in the successful coalition may then move one of their tokens from that country to any adjacent country or any country bordering another EU country. Thus, this creates a sort of domino effect wherein players shift tokens to new areas in attempts to capture elections which have yet to be held during that round. This ability to move a token following a successful election becomes a major part of the negotiations during the elections: 'Hey, if we let John in on this coalition, he'll shift his token to Hungary and we'll be forced to include him in on that coalition, too. Then, he'll shift to the Czech Republic and win that election as well. That's too many points for him!' Delicious fun, although it can get a bit heated and nasty.
During turns 3 and 4, the threat of nationalistic wars looms heavy upon the players. During each of these turns, two dice are rolled six times to determine the locations of tensions in various Eastern European countries. If a number is rolled twice, war breaks out and has the potential of spilling across its borders and escalating to major proportions. Players must suppress these wars and regional tensions. These suppression attempts are done in a unique and entertaining fashion. Each player secretly commits a number of the tokens he has available to him that turn in an effort to suppress the revolts. All are revealed and if the tension level is met or exceeded, peace is restored. The player who committed the most tokens to this effort receives 4 Victory points, the second most gets 2 VPs and the third gets 1 VP. The tokens players committed in this effort are not available for the upcoming elections. It is a tough choice on whether to go for the Victory points by being the leader in the suppression effort (or try to avoid being penalized if the effort fails) or save the tokens for the upcoming elections.
However, if not enough tokens were committed to quell the revolts, then the player who held back the most tokens loses 4 VP! The player who held back the second most tokens loses 2 VP and the third loses 1 VP. Cruel, cruel, cruel!
After four rounds, the player with the most accumulated Political points receives his bonus 3 Victory points for being elected EU President. Then, the player with the most overall Victory points is declared the victor.
I find the game to be very enjoyable with lots (maybe a bit too much) of heated debates and negotiations. There are the constant warnings of 'Darren's winning', which, of course, the standard reply is 'No, I'm not. Lenny is!' Since Victory points are kept secret, this becomes a bit of a guessing game (unless you're playing with someone who can count cards). Thus, many players use the Political points, which are recorded on a public track' as a gauge to determine the leader. This is unfortunate, as it is quite possible to be leading on the Political point track but be way behind on the Victory point track.
A word of warning: the negotiations can be extremely intense and heated. I strongly urge anyone playing this game to stick by the rules that (1) disallow anyone not present in a country from participating in the discussions / negotiations for that country's election; and (2) When reaching the actual Election phase, no further negotiations or comments must be uttered. Only a simple 'Yes' or 'No' to the proposed coalition should be given. Enforcement of these two rules will greatly speed up the game.
Some additional thoughts: I have played with the both the rules as written and the variant wherein the player who has the fewest Political points gets to propose coalitions first in each election. It was thought this would serve as an equalizer and there has been some discussion about this on the Internet. I'm not sure if it is better, worse or the same as the method spelled out in the rules wherein the player who is first on the Political point track proposes coalitions first.
As the rules are written, it would seem that this would be an unfair advantage for the player who has the most PPs. In reality, however, even though this player proposes first, players tend to be reluctant to join in a coalition with this player due to his formidable position on the PP track.
Using the variant, it seemed that the first coalition proposed succeeded about 80% of the time as the person making the proposal didn't appear to be the obvious leader. This did take away some of the game's excitement in the voting on various coalition proposals and the tension of 'do I vote no even though he's including me, but I don't want him to get any more points, and hope I'm included in the next proposal, or vote yes just to get the quick points?'
I want to play the game a few more times using both methods in order to determine which I prefer.
A game of Europa 1945-2030 clocks in at about 2-1/2 to 3 hours with 6 players. It is very intense but also very exciting and fun. The components are top notch, as I've come to expect from EuroGames titles. I will say that the game is a bit pricey, however. My copy cost in excess of $50, but this price should come down as the game becomes more readily available on the market.
EuroGames is planning on releasing the game in English, although the only real German involved in the European version is the names of the various countries represented on the boards. This is not difficult to decipher at all and does not hamper play of the game whatsoever.
If you enjoy games with negotiations and deal-making, and don't mind the constant finger pointing and whinings which go with players being a perceived leader (or the incredibly bizarre box cover), then Europa 1945-2030 would be a fine addition to your collection. Recommended.
Sorry, I hate writing bad reviews. But I bought this game based on recommendations that it was similar to Diplomacy. I don't see it. This does not even feel like a game to me. It is more like a puzzle. Or possible a geography lesson for children. This game is going to be collecting dust until I decide to sell it at a garage sale or throw it away. The only reason that I have not voted 1 star is at least it had a potentially good concept. The worst thing about my experience with Europa, is that I still refuse to buy Eurogames products for fear that they are as poor as this game is.
For all the setup, discussion and work that goes into playing Europa:1945-2030, there's just not enough board game fun to be had. This is probably because the designers have labored to make a point about the future of European unity at the expense of a well-balanced entertaining game.
We were exhausted after two hours spent on this exercise. And the shift in rules with each new phase kept it from ever becoming logical or easy to play.
Yes, there are tons of beautiful pieces here. But they would have been better served in a simpler conquest or election game than in this obtuse workout.
Now here's a tip:
If you've already bought this game, play it once so you get the designer's point. Then take the male/female pieces and add them to your copy of DEMOCRAZY. You'll greatly expand the range of rules, such as 'Blue men don't count' or 'Only score a color if they're all the same sex.'
After playing such blockbuster games as Empire Builder and Settlers of Catan, this game is quite a let down. My husband ordered this game to play with some of our fellow board game lovers and it failed to live up to expectations. It took forever to understand how to play and then seemed too easy. Most of the game is spent trying to convince others to join your side. If you want to take over the world buy Risk instead!
Here's your chance to follow Teddy Roosevelt's advice: "Be gentle and tender, as well as brave." The baby on the box represents an infant Europe that you must guide to maturity and unity. This largely cooperative struggle to unite Europe is no place for dictators or conquerors. Only those players who help overcome the native resistance to the Union and bring a country into the fold, through diplomacy and temporary alliances, earn Victory Points and political influence. Your diplomatic talents and already meager resources will be challenged to the max when the Iron Curtain falls, making conditions ripe for nationalistic unrest and warfare. But aren't you glad you took Teddy's advice?
This most politically correct of wargames pits players in a largely cooperative struggle to unite the nations of Europe into the European Union. Diplomats shuffle from country to country, trying to overcome by force of persuasion the native resistance to the Union. Only those players who help bring a country into the fold receive both victory points and political influence--but not every player can be involved in every country. As the game progresses and the Iron Curtain falls, the specter of nationalistic unrest and warfare haunts the players, taxing their already thin resources. This engaging blend of brainteasing and horse-trading will provide fresh challenges every time you play it.
If I ask you (nicely) to name your favourite game companies, most will plump for Avalon Hill, Wizards Of The Coast, Hans Im Glück or Kosmos. Why Eurogames fail to break into this perceived premier division is beyond me, particularly when their current catalogue includes Formel Dé, Condottiere and Serenissima. I hope that the weighty Europa tips the scales in their favour, because in my opinion, this was the game of Spiel 98.
On first viewing, the heavy premise of Europe's post-1945 integration does not look promising, and suggests an SPI idea from the 70s. Eurogames, though, sensibly looked beyond the theme and went to town on the editing and contents. In fact, there have been cries of "over-produced". But at 60 marks in Essen, this was hardly a credible argument.
Despite the daunting components, which include two mounted game boards, puzzle pieces representing each country who joins the union, initial historical overlays, a pack of country cards (to determine the election order), countless pawns in both male and female form, tons of markers, a full rule set, and, sensibly, two copies of the Quick Start rules (four A5 sides), which we used to learn the game. These were pretty complete, and any subsequent queries were thoroughly covered by their big brother.
Europa's victory condition is very straightforward: Earn victory point counters by defeating the Nationalists during individual country elections. These elections also provide Political Points, which are tallied on a surrounding track and which, in turn, earn "Europeans" (Eurogames' description, not mine) who are placed, Risk-style, to contest the infighting.
A run through of the Order Of Play (lifted from the abridged rules) should give a clear illustration of the objectives:
- Phase 1: Determine turn order. Random for turn one, and then in order of Political Points.
- Phase 2: Take a number of "Europeans" equal to your total of Political Points divided by 10. With luck, this will provide between five and a dozen pawns (in the latter stages) with which to do the business.
- Phase 3: The country cards are shuffled and placed on the numbered spaces. You then place corresponding markers onto the mapboard. These do help with identification, but are a little fiddly. During turns two and three, additional countries are added to those who have not yet seen the wisdom of an all-encompassing Europe.
- Phase 4: The "Eurobods" are now placed, the first batch being half (rounded up) of the total in front of you. When all players have made their initial sorties, the final group of pawns are distributed. Although, initially, this is fairly random, you will need to keep an eye on the election order, and remember that "Eurotypes" can only be assigned to countries that share a border with an EU member. This keeps the action nice and tight, and restrains any possible fragmentation on the board.
- Phase 5: The elections begin. This facet of the game is terrific fun, and a word here to embellish your reasons for playing. Each country has a "value", which is the minimum vote needed to defeat those parties (Nationalists) who are anti-EU. Taking Great Britain as an example, four "Eurodandies" need to be placed in situ, and when they are, they will win the election and earn Political Points (refer to Phase 2, above). GB is worth 30 points (a hefty bounty), and a single winner would be in good shape. What usually happens, however, is that a coalition needs to be established, in which case the points are evenly distributed. Example: Mike F has two "Europersons" in GB, whilst Alan, Mike C and Bruce have one each. Alan, Mike C and Bruce cannot secure the required majority (four, remember) and therefore Mike F needs to negotiate, or simply select, two partners to propel himself and allies past the post. Fool that he is, he chooses Alan and Bruce, and Mike C leaves the table in a huff.
I alluded to Risk previously, and that game's "dispersal" rule is emulated in Europa. After each election, one pawn may be moved to an adjacent country. It is rational to relocate to a country which has yet to have an election, but this is not always possible. In any case, all "Eurogeezers/birds" are removed if the Nationalists prevail. Sticking with the above example, the points tally would be 10 each for Mike F, Alan and Bruce, despite Mike F's advantage. This is a clever rule, because it allows a minimal presence to affect the outcome, although if a player has the required minimum number of Political Points, he can take the spoils himself. So, if Mike F had positioned four "Eurothingies" in GB, the 30 points would have been his, and his alone. One Victory Point counter is awarded to all players who contested a successful campaign.
Once a country has been "Eurofied", a puzzle piece is added to the map for easy identification. As the board fills up with blue country pieces, you do get a sense of progress and history. And earlier chuckles prompted by their distribution tend to die away as the final contests are fought out.
Europa is played over four turns, with the above sequence repeated each time. For those wondering "where's the argy bargy?", an additional angle is added for turns two and three, and this will satisfy the warmongers amongst you. It is:
- Roll the ten-sided dice six times, and refer to the table printed on the game board. If a non-EU country is rolled, it is subject to a "Tension" marker. If a subsequent die roll points to the same country, "War" is declared and all neighbouring countries become "Tense" and are marked accordingly.
This element of Europa, although not particularly time consuming, does require sharp wits, and as it happens twice during the game, can provide a fatal blow if the wrong decisions are made.
If countries remain in high Tension, then the Nationalists prove more difficult to shift, the vote requirement being raised by "one". Elections are negated for countries at war.
As you trundle along, accumulating victory markers and making gains on the Political Point track, it is easy to see whose "side" you should currently be on. But players seemingly way ahead can be reined-in, and in each game I've played, the bonus of three victory tokens to the player furthest along the PP track has proved decisive.
For such an ambitious topic, Europa is surprisingly easy to assimilate and play. Even the election tallies prove painless, with coalitions usually self-evident, although back-stabbing is allowed and encouraged. Early alliances are quickly broken in the dive for the tape.
Sceptics, and there were many, quickly warmed to the ambitious thesis and magnificent production. At the end of the two hours or so required to play (and make sure there are at least four of you) nary a dissenting word was heard.